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I must now try to reconcile my New Linguistics with recent work in historical linguistics.

With urban development and literacy this was supplanted by more evolved systems using 5s, 6s, 10s, and eventually dozens and scores.To which point in the evolution of language does this list apply? Swadesh List of 200 words All, and, animal, ashes, at, back, bad, bark, because, belly, big, bird, bite, black, blood, blow, bone, breathe, burn, child, cloud, cold, come, count, cut, day, die, dig, dirty, dog, drink, dry, dull, dust, ear, earth, eat, egg, eye, fall, far, fat [grease], father, fear, feather, few, fight, fire, fish, five, float, flow, flower, fly, fog, foot, four, freeze, fruit, give, good, grass, green, guts, hair, hand, he, head, hear, heart, heavy, here, hit, hold [take], how, hunt, husband, I, ice, if, in, kill, know, lake, laugh, leaf, leftside, leg, lie, live, liver, long, louse, man [male], many, meat [flesh], mother, mountain, mouth, name, narrow, near, neck, new, night, nose, not, old, one, other, person, play, pull, push, rain, red, right [correct], rightside, river, road, root, rope, rotten, rub, salt, sand, say, scratch, sea, see, seed, sew, sharp, short, sing, sit, skin, sky, sleep, small, smell, smoke, smooth, snake, snow, some, spit, split, squeeze, stab [pierce], stand, star, stick, stone, straight, suck, sun, swell, swim, tail, that, there, they, thick, thin, think, this, thou, three, throw, tie, tongue, tooth, tree, turn, two, vomit, walk, warm, wash, water, we, wet, what, when, where, white, who, wide, wife, wind, wing, wipe, with, woman, woods, worm, ye, year, yellow.Apart from its random and imaginary content, the Swadesh list has two flaws which between them condemn 11 per cent of these words before we start.Anyone who tries immediately faces a barrier of extremely technical language and a host of concepts which are often peculiar to one author and disputed by everyone else.This lack of consensus is both striking and a sign of serious disjunction at the heart of this discipline.

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